Philosophy is a force that significantly affects the progress of mankind. She is always a participant in the formation of certain social ideals and ideas about the integrity of the world. The very concept of philosophy and the first philosophical systems arose about five hundred years before our era. In different places philosophical concepts have been formed that combine both the philosophy of India and religion.
The philosophy of ancient India
Three periods are inherent in it. The first period is from the fifteenth to the fifth century BC. The second - from the fifth century BC to the tenth century AD and the third period - from the tenth century AD. The first period is called "Vedic", the second - "classical", the third - "Hindu." The continuous development of Indian philosophy began with the most ancient texts called the Vedas. They were written fifteen centuries BC. The name itself comes from the word “know” - to know. The Vedas are composed of four parts: Samhita, Brahman, Aranyaka and Upanishad. The most ancient Samhitas are a collection of four books of old “hymns”. Of these: the Rigveda is the oldest and most revered Veda for comprehending the secrets of being, Samaveda is the Vedic tunes, Yajurveda is the Veda for sacrifices, Atharva Veda is Vedic spells. The remaining three texts are an interpretation of Samhita. Following the Vedic beliefs, God sees and knows everything and placed everything in the Vedas. Knowledge comes in two forms: sacred and profane. Each book of Samhita has corresponding brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads complement either Samhitas or Brahmins. Such a philosophy seems complicated. And to understand her, one must remember the time in which she was born. The formation of the class society of that time, the existence of slavery, the growth of inequality in society led to the formation of castes. The caste of brahmanas (priests) - of a higher order, lived at the expense of other people. The Kshatriyas were warriors and constantly fought with the Brahmins for power. Vaisyas and sudras are hard-working people who paid tribute. And finally, slaves who did not belong to any of the castes. All this diverse society was supposed to coexist. And religion, as a social philosophy, was to create the rules of coexistence in a single state, India.
The oldest of the Vedas - the Rig Veda helped the ancient Indians to comprehend the secrets of being. The main method of comprehension is a created myth. Cosmic phenomena underlie the comprehension of the world. Planets play the role of a deity in myths. The cyclical nature is reflected in the ritual cyclical. There is no main god in the Veda. A man turns to one of the gods who can help in this particular situation. The Upanishads were composed in different years, and are secret teachings that are not available to everyone. The concepts of “brahman” and “atman” in the Veda are the basis of being, the beginning of all things. Another interesting aspect of the Veda is the law of karma. He coordinates the process of reincarnation according to the good and evil deeds of man. The Vedas claim that the future incarnation is not the result of God's desire, but the result of the life of man himself (reward or punishment). Another key concept of the Vedas is moksha. This is the highest goal of man, which is to get away from the wheel of reincarnations.
India is a very colorful country, largely due to its rich flora, more details: Flowers of India . | || 189
Школы древней философии Индии
The task of the philosophical schools of India is the process of cognition, that is, entering the world of ritual magic. For the knowledge of the divine principle, "turia" was used. These are mystical initiations carried out in schools. Among the philosophical schools in India, there were those that took the teachings of Vedism as a basis, and those that denied Vedism. Let's get acquainted with some of them.
Translated as “number”. It was founded seven centuries BC. It is based on a disciple of the Vedas. Considers the world as a living creature. Being represents Purusha, the endless cosmic "I", which does not change and testifies to everything Purusha - this is not the body, nor soul, nor consciousness. The object of multiple cognition. In addition to the unknown, in teaching there is a material beginning. This is Prakriti - primary matter, it is in eternity and constant activity. This is the cause of earthly phenomena, a consequence of lifestyle. Actions of Prakriti of those gunas: appearance, activity and inertness. These are not physical actions, but their consequences. Practically the Huns are the power of man.
The main school of India. The basis is the Upanishads. It was the source of the religion of Hinduism. Created in the Middle Ages. The main idea of the school is the concept of Brahman as a multiple spiritual component. The reverse side of Brahman is space in conjunction with time. Through them, he comes into the world. Brahman at the beginning of the universe and at its end. The universe is but an illusion through ignorance of Brahman. The highest spirit is Brahman, manifested in man through the atman. When a person transforms his inner essence into the state of the Brahman-atman, he will receive a pure consciousness - this is the main idea. Refusal of things, control over sensuality and mind, with a strong desire to free oneself, will lead to a state of nirvana. Will the learning process continue until Brahman becomes fully conscious? leading to the liberation of the soul.
Read more about the beliefs of Indians in the article: Religion of India .
The doctrine was founded by Prince Siddhartha for half a century BC. Then they began to call him Buddha, which means enlightenment. This is one of the religions widespread throughout the world; it does not have the concept of “God” and an immortal soul. According to the teachings of Buddha, the world is a stream of oscillating particles from being. They are called dharmas. They are the energetic life stream of any manifestations of human feelings. The world is just an infinite number of dharmas. Our being is only moments. But every moment gives rise to the following. The world holds such a law. Buddha dropped questions about the processes of beginning and end and spoke only of dharma. The doctrine indicates the cause of suffering in not seeing the moment called "now." Doctrine does not recognize the immortal soul. The basis of the doctrine is the four truths. The doctrine defines eight steps on the path to nirvana. The state of nirvana combines absolute wisdom, virtue and equanimity.
He founded the doctrine - Brihanspati. The name translates as "go from the world." Founded five hundred years BC. Does not accept Vedism and Brahmanism. Life was considered a value on Earth. They did not recognize supernaturalness. Doctrine accepts only the material world. Things have their nature and arise on its basis. At the heart of the world are four elements: fire, air, water and earth, of which everything consists. They consider the world a random set of elements. They do not recognize consciousness and personality outside the body. The soul is considered material. After death, there is no person, therefore there is nothing to suffer. In teaching, the complete denial of immortality. A person should be guided by two senses - kama (to enjoy) and artha (to have benefits). The meaning of life is seen in receiving pleasure and avoiding suffering.
The school arose five centuries before our era. His doctrine combined the concepts of features and logic. Recognizes the four earthly elements, the spatio-temporal component and the ether, as the subtle matter of the soul and mind. The doctrine considers that the whole world is a combination of these elements. For the first time, the small internal elements of "anna" (atoms) stood out as the material carriers of everything. Since the particles of annu cannot control themselves, there is a supreme spirit Brahman for this. The doctrine recognizes the law of karma. Over the centuries, this teaching has degenerated into ancient philosophy.
Philosophy of India, video: