Scientists consider the civilization of ancient India as the third civilization of the Earth. For the data of modern archeology, it appeared after Egypt and Mesopotamia. Like all great civilizations, it began to exist at the mouth of the Indus River. True, they say that before there were four more rivers, but over time they disappeared. The area where the ancient civilization of India began has long been under water. Studies by archaeologists have shown the existence of the remains of entire villages under water. This area was called Punjab, which means fivefold. Further settlements stretched to the territory of present-day Pakistan. Originally, this territory was called Sindhu, but Persian travelers pronounced it as "Hindu." And the Greeks reduced to the Indus.
The first of the states in the history of India
Three millennia BC the first state was created in the Indus Valley with a slave system and a special culture. The indigenous people of the country were black, with short stature and black hair. In the southern part of the country their descendants still live. They are called Dravidians. Found letters made in Dravidian language. They are still not decrypted. It was a developed civilization of ancient India . They built entire cities with geometrically regular streets. Even two-story buildings with water supply were built. People mainly engaged in agriculture and raised livestock. Craftsmen made jewelry and bones of elephants, stone, metals. Trade with Indochina and Mesopotamia developed. There was a fortress on the central square of the city. They found refuge from enemies and floods.
But soon the tribes of the ancient Aryans invaded India. These are nomadic nomadic cattle breeders whose livestock have great wealth and their main food is milk. The tribes of the Aryans of the Rajah headed. At the end of the millennium, the Aryans begin to clear and drain the Ganges Valley, turning from nomads to farmers. . The wealth selected in wars settles in the hands of a small number of leaders. The hired warriors strengthen their power, which is inherited. From the captives, an estate of slaves is created, and the rajas themselves become the heads of the small powers. But in the process of war, these small powers are impoverished in one big state with their own system and hierarchy of rulers. A special kind of inhabitants of powers appears - priests. They are called brahmanas and they support the existing system.
В результате ведения оседлого способа жизни, среди населяющих территорию Индии ариев, появляется неравенство в достатке. Богатства, отобранные в войнах, оседают в руках маленького количества вождей. Нанятые воины укрепляют их власть, которую передают по наследству. Из пленников создается сословие рабов, а сами раджи становятся главами маленьких держав. Но в процессе войны эти маленькие державы обедняются в одно большое государство со своим строем и иерархией правителей. Появляется особый вид жителей держав – жрецы. Их называют брахманами и они поддерживают существующий строй.
The deep spiritual world of India attracts millions of tourists annually, more in detail: Philosophy of India .
For a thousand years BC, the entire population was divided into four classes. They were called castes. The first caste, the highest, united brahmanas who did not work, lived on money from sacrifice. The second caste is called ksatriya. These were warriors, they ruled the state. The first two castes constantly competed among themselves. The third caste - the Vaishevs - are farmers, people of trade and grazing cattle. And the fourth caste was formed from the conquered local population and was called sudra. These are servants who perform simple and hard work. Slaves were not allowed in any of the castes. The formation of castes impeded the development of society. But castes also played a positive role. Formerly tribal relations disappeared. People of diverse tribes could unite in one state.
Formation of states
The first great state in the history of ancient India was the Mauryev state. Artificial irrigation has added plenty of fertile land. Trade deals are flourishing, castes are getting richer and poorer. To maintain power, as a result of the struggle between small states, King Chandragupta came to power, who founded the Mauryev dynasty. The united kingdom reaches its peak 200 years BC by the accession of a number of neighboring regions.
In the first half of the fourth century, a new powerful Gupta state was created with its center in Magatha. The rulers of this kingdom conquered the Ganges Valley and Central India. The Indians are exploring new lands, artisans have learned to make thin cotton and silk products. India is actively trading with other countries. Already in the fifth century, innovations in agriculture were introduced. Pieces of land for a certain share of the crop are given to farmers for the time being for use. At the same time, the class of slaves disappears. The final rejection of slavery occurred with the advent of the Hun tribes in India, who founded their possessions there.
Penetration of Islam
In history of ancient India , начиная с седьмого века, в стране появился ислам. В тринадцатом веке в Индии появились армии Тамерлана. Они завоевали почти всю территорию страны и основали «Империю Великих Монголов», просуществовавшую до начала девятнадцатого века. А в середине этого века страной стала руководить Великобритания. В 1947 году Индия, наконец, обрела независимость. Но произошло разделение на две части – Индию и Пакистан. В 1950 году Индия стала демократической федеральной республикой.
Philosophical schools of Ancient India
The origin of the philosophical current in Ancient India took place two millennia BC. She studied the relationship between man-nature and the existence of the body and soul of a person.
All about the cultural characteristics of the country, more details: Customs and traditions of India .
The oldest philosophy of India is the Vedas. This is a collection of spells, rites, prayers, addressed to the higher forces of nature. Shows the idea of people about morality. Divided into four parts: hymns, rituals, rules of life of people and innermost knowledge. The Vedas are the basis of all schools of philosophy in the world. A characteristic feature of Vedic beliefs is polytheism. This is worship of multiple gods. They had the properties of a man or a half-man - a half-beast. The main god was Indra - the warrior. Revered Agni - the god of fire, Surya - the god of the sun and others. According to the belief, the world is divided into three spheres: heaven, earth and ether.
The changes taking place in society, the division into castes, led to the fact that only a small number of people began to understand the Vedas. Then in philosophical schools of ancient India there were brahmanas who interpreted Vedic texts. This gave rise to the period of the course of Brahmanism. Vedic philosophy accepted new knowledge and rituals, and the brahmanas supported them. The essence of Brahmanism: the main god Prajapati is the master of all life and the Lord of rebirth. He requires sacrifice. Brahmanas became equal to God.
Brahmanism became the basis of Hinduism and Buddhism. Hinduism is a continuation of Brahmanism but taking into account local religions. Hinduism speaks of a creator god, a hierarchy of gods. Three main gods appeared.
Buddhism, although it appeared much later than Vedism, but over several centuries has become the religion of many peoples of the world. Coming from India, he entrenched in Asian countries. The founder of religion is Buddha. The basic idea of religion is the idea of nirvana, which preaches the salvation of man through liberation. There are certain rules along this path called commandments. Buddha explained what suffering is and how to free oneself from it. Religion stands for the idea of the equality of all people.
Man has always sought knowledge and this is the engine of development of society. At all times, the path to this knowledge has been illuminated by philosophy. Expressed in different trends of religion, scientific research, it still helps to find answers to exciting questions about the meaning of life.
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