The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean and covers more than twenty percent of the earth's surface. It covers an area of just over seventy-six million square kilometers. Its maximum depth is seven kilometers seven hundred twenty-nine meters. Its waters are washed by the continents of Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica. This ocean got its name from the richest continent in India, India. Eleven and a half million kilometers is the area of all the seas, straits and bays that make up the Indian Ocean. The most famous seas of this ocean are the Red and Arabian. It includes the Gulf of Aden and the Persian, as well as Omani. Some islands of this Ocean, for example, such as Madagascar, Maldives, are fragments of continents that once split from them as a result of planetary cataclysms; Others, such as Andoman and Nicobar, arose as a result of volcanic eruptions. The largest, by right, is considered to be Madagascar. Its area exceeds five hundred and ninety thousand kilometers.
The origin of the ocean
According to recent scientific studies Gondwana protomaterial , began to break out. In the process of this collapse, Africa Hindustan, Arabia, Antarctica and Australia were formed. These processes were completed at the turn of one hundred forty one hundred thirty million years ago. Then the hollow of the Indian Ocean began to form. All these complex geological processes continue to this day. The movements of mainland plates lead to earthquakes and the occurrence of tsunamis, which collapse on the coast, claiming thousands of human lives. In some cases, up to three hundred thousand people. Mankind has not yet learned how to predict these cataclysms. Every year, underwater eruptions and, as a result, huge tidal waves take many lives.
In the main part, the monsoon prevails. It is marked by frequent cyclones. Moreover, they can form at a very high speed and fly unexpectedly. The most frequent hurricanes are in the region of Madagascar and the Mascaren Islands. Underwater currents change with the monsoon seasons. This requires the captains and navigators of the ships, an excellent knowledge of the changes in seasonal currents, for safe navigation in these waters. In the equatorial part, the waters have a constant temperature, in the region of twenty-eight degrees. High temperatures are inherent in the waters of the Australian Gulf. They are thirty degrees. The maximum amount of salt is present in the Persian Gulf and in the Red Sea.
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Inhabitants of these waters
This area unusually rich and diverse representatives of the fauna .. The abundance of plankton in these areas attracts a huge number of diverse inhabitants of the seas. Plankton, of these places, has a peculiarity, it glows very brightly at night. Sometimes it seems that the waters are covered with a luminous blanket, this feature greatly frightened the sailors of antiquity and won the glory of dangerous places. A large number of fish attracts predators to these places, so the number of sharks in these waters is very large, from tiny to giant sharks of cannibals. There are also a large number of mammals, such as seals, turtles, various cetaceans and dolphins. The flora of these waters is represented by various algae. A very typical vegetation is mangrove. At the mouths of the rivers. Flowing into the ocean, it forms a continuous impenetrable cover from the interweaving of vines and other creeping plants.
Development of navigation
On the coasts, since ancient times, people from different civilizations settled, Their way out of rivers and bays, led to the rapid development of navigation. The development of the ocean. For example, Egypt conducted very lucrative trade with nearby countries. Such as India, another three and a half thousand years BC. The ancient scholar Herodotus described the travels of the Phoenicians around Africa to India. Many peoples, for many centuries, plowed the expanses of this ocean. Despite all the difficulties of the way and the imperfection of the ships. The army of Alexander of Macedon used this path in three hundred and twenty-fifth BC. At the end of the thirteenth century, the merchant Marco Polo sailed Indian Ocean , returning from China to Ceylon and India. In one thousand seven hundred and seventy-second year, the campaign of D. Cook made his famous voyage, up to the seventy-first parallel of the southern latitudes. In one thousand eight hundred and eighty-sixth and eighty-ninth years, the world circumnavigation was carried out by Admiral Makarov S.O. on the corvette "Hero". This expedition did a great job of exploring the ocean and laying new sea lanes. For many years, various countries have studied the waters of this ocean. Recent decades have allowed, with the help of modern satellite equipment, to receive accurate terrain maps of the ocean floor. With an accuracy of depths of up to one hundred meters.
The values of these waters for industrial fishing are not very large, since they make up only five percent of the total world fish production. The main commercial varieties of fish in this area are tuna and sardine. Huge floating factories with entire fleets of trawlers furrow these waters. The production of crustaceans is well-placed; they arrive at store shops both in frozen and fresh form. Previously, many whales were caught in these waters. At this time, production has been ubiquitously curtailed. On the shores of Sri Sri Lanka and Australia, pearls and mother-of-pearl are mined. An important industrial development of these waters can rightfully be considered the production of hydrocarbons located on the shelf of the Suez and Persian canals. The annual production of billions of barrels is an excellent source of income for coastal countries that are actively producing in the area. This ocean of land is very important for the countries of the coastline washed by its waters. Many ships plow its waters using trade routes laid across endless expanses of the sea. A huge amount of cargo is transported.
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The waters of this reservoir, much more than other oceans, contain salt, from -for a small inflow of freshwater rivers and greater evaporation. The water temperature in this ocean is much higher than in others, so it is considered warm. This huge body of water, bearing the name in honor of one of the richest countries, the Asian mainland, is itself a storehouse of minerals for many countries. Located along its banks. The main task of people consists in the all-out desire to use the wealth of this region, trying as little as possible to harm, at the same time, the environment. Oil production, on the shelf, can lead to innumerable disasters, when the drilling rigs are mismanaged.
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